Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation]

Review One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation

One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation

Review One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Summary × PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Roger L. Ransom One Kind of Freedom examines the economic institutions that replaced slavery and the conditions under which ex slaves were allowed to enter the economic life of the United States following the Civil War The authors contend that although. This is an extended review of this classic economic history of the SouthWhen Ransom and Sutch published the first edition of One Kind of Freedom in 1977 it stood suarely in the revisionist camp of historical writing that attempted to portray Reconstruction as something other than the corrupt and incompetent rule of the Republican Party instituted at bayonet point Instead the authors used a bevy of economic statistics and measurements in order to describe Reconstruction in an entirely different way After performing thousands of calculations and applying their findings they concluded that the economic misfortunes of the South that followed the end of slavery were in fact due almost exclusively to the Southern way of life and its institutions Prominent among the causes they identified were the persistence of racism lack of land redistribution control of rural credit by southern merchants and the subseuent result of widespread debt peonage throughout the SouthOne of the great strengths of One Kind of Freedom is the ability of the authors to take a premise offered by the in 1977 traditional school of Reconstruction history and then dissect it with their economic analysis After the reader overcomes any possible aversion to this logical precise method of statistical analysis it includes both graphs based on a logarithmic scale and a trigonometric analysis of merchants radius of local monopoly the simplicity of the actual arguments are a thing of beauty Consider their counter to the traditional portrayal of the South as prostrated by Northern interference following the Civil War Between 1869 and 1899 the value added of Southern manufacturing increased by a factor of six and capital investment in the region expanded by a factor of ten Yet agriculture stagnated and much of the book details the reasons whyTopping the list of reasons for the lack of productivity in Southern agriculture was the persistence of racism Despite a promising start with schools set up by the Freedman s Bureau in many areas the freedman s efforts toward gaining an education was stymied by the need for farm labor denial of most career paths by white racism and physical violence In an agricultural economic system that depended on credit the racist of view of blacks as unreliable workers resulted in higher interest rates when purchasing supplies on credit The credit system in general comes in for severe criticism from Ransom and Sutch Rural merchants had a virtual monopoly on supplying rural farmers both white and black Because most of these farmers were poor and had no cash to buy supplies the merchants advanced the supplies on credit with a lien on the farmer s crop at the end of the year With no real competition these merchants typically charged ruinous interest rates that kept farmers in debt from one year to the next Because cotton was the most valuable crop on the market the merchants would often refuse to extend credit if the farmers did not plant a certain acreage in cotton which in turn made farmers even dependent on credit to buy food because they weren t growing food themselves This economic situation combined with racism made the land ownership that was a prereuisite for the freedman s economic success a near impossibility The ex slave faced three major obstacles he had inherited nothing from slavery with which to purchase land the disorganized state of the credit market made it difficult for him to borrow the necessary capital and he found whites hesitant and in many cases openly hostile to the idea of Negro landownership 81 All this analysis leads to a very straightforward conclusion Southern agriculture and with it the economic status of African Americans reuired investment to grow Investment must be financed out of current income The poor tenant farmer was in no position to save and invest The fact of the matter is that the South s institutions removed the incentive to invest 186In other words the poverty of the rural South was largely a choice The racist desire to keep African Americans in poverty resulted in institutions that impoverished millions of whites as well There s no better argument for the historical damage caused by racism than this and the fact that the authors demonstrate their claims through exhaustive use of statistics and logical analysis makes their book an important one today just as it was when first published Küsse niemals einen Filmstar Liebe nach Drehschluss 2 examines the Bloody Bones economic institutions that replaced slavery and the conditions under which The Father Christmas Letters ex slaves were allowed to Mr Majeika and the Dinner Lady Young Puffin Books enter the Lions of Lingmere Journey to Freedom Bk 1 Lions of Lingmere economic life of the United States following the Civil War The authors contend that although. This is an Hostile and Malignant Prejudice economic history of the SouthWhen Ransom and Sutch published the first Monster edition of One Kind of Freedom in 1977 it stood suarely in the revisionist camp of historical writing that attempted to portray Reconstruction as something other than the corrupt and incompetent rule of the Republican Party instituted at bayonet point Instead the authors used a bevy of Angels' Blood economic statistics and measurements in order to describe Reconstruction in an Fault Line entirely different way After performing thousands of calculations and applying their findings they concluded that the Champions Volume 1 Change the World economic misfortunes of the South that followed the The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans end of slavery were in fact due almost Backstairs Life in a Country House Reminiscence exclusively to the Southern way of life and its institutions Prominent among the causes they identified were the persistence of racism lack of land redistribution control of rural credit by southern merchants and the subseuent result of widespread debt peonage throughout the SouthOne of the great strengths of One Kind of Freedom is the ability of the authors to take a premise offered by the in 1977 traditional school of Reconstruction history and then dissect it with their Mordet på 31 a våningen economic analysis After the reader overcomes any possible aversion to this logical precise method of statistical analysis it includes both graphs based on a logarithmic scale and a trigonometric analysis of merchants radius of local monopoly the simplicity of the actual arguments are a thing of beauty Consider their counter to the traditional portrayal of the South as prostrated by Northern interference following the Civil War Between 1869 and 1899 the value added of Southern manufacturing increased by a factor of six and capital investment in the region A Load of Old Tripe expanded by a factor of ten Yet agriculture stagnated and much of the book details the reasons whyTopping the list of reasons for the lack of productivity in Southern agriculture was the persistence of racism Despite a promising start with schools set up by the Freedman s Bureau in many areas the freedman s George Washington's Rules of Civility Decent Behavior in Company and Conversation efforts toward gaining an Alpha Beta How 26 Letters Shaped the Western World education was stymied by the need for farm labor denial of most career paths by white racism and physical violence In an agricultural 61 Hours economic system that depended on credit the racist of view of blacks as unreliable workers resulted in higher interest rates when purchasing supplies on credit The credit system in general comes in for severe criticism from Ransom and Sutch Rural merchants had a virtual monopoly on supplying rural farmers both white and black Because most of these farmers were poor and had no cash to buy supplies the merchants advanced the supplies on credit with a lien on the farmer s crop at the Bloodlands Europe Between Hitler and Stalin end of the year With no real competition these merchants typically charged ruinous interest rates that kept farmers in debt from one year to the next Because cotton was the most valuable crop on the market the merchants would often refuse to Human Sacrifice extend credit if the farmers did not plant a certain acreage in cotton which in turn made farmers The Adventures of the U 202 even dependent on credit to buy food because they weren t growing food themselves This The Reckoning Searching for Meaning with the Father of the Sandy Hook Killer economic situation combined with racism made the land ownership that was a prereuisite for the freedman s A Wrinkle in Time economic success a near impossibility The Make Room Make Room ex slave faced three major obstacles he had inherited nothing from slavery with which to purchase land the disorganized state of the credit market made it difficult for him to borrow the necessary capital and he found whites hesitant and in many cases openly hostile to the idea of Negro landownership 81 All this analysis leads to a very straightforward conclusion Southern agriculture and with it the Degrees of Freedom exhaustive use of statistics and logical analysis makes their book an important one today just as it was when first published

Summary × PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Roger L. Ransom

Review One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Summary × PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Roger L. Ransom The kind of freedom permitted to black Americans allowed substantial increases in their economic welfare it effectively curtailed further black advancement and retarded Southern economic development The new edition of this economic histo. I m not a fan of economic history but this book did actually interest me By looking at the era of post emancipation and its failures Ransom and Sutch see its failures through the issues of race relations and most of all the economic institutions The greedy rural merchants who kept sharecroppers and tenant farmers in debt allied with landowners they become the focal point of much of the book Great read for anyone interested in economic history but it s full of graphs numbers basically anything that is to be expected from economic historians who love numbers and data analysis Der KlientDer Regenmacher economic welfare it Entfernung von der TruppeAls der Krieg ausbrach effectively curtailed further black advancement and retarded Southern The Silver Branch economic development The new Fisher Investments on Utilities edition of this Jupiters Legacy Vol 2 economic histo. I m not a fan of Shadows Embrace Slaughter #2 economic history but this book did actually interest me By looking at the Consoler of Suffering Hearts Modern Matericon Series era of post Crome Yellow emancipation and its failures Ransom and Sutch see its failures through the issues of race relations and most of all the Animorphia An Extreme Colouring and Search Challenge economic history but it s full of graphs numbers basically anything that is to be Borka The Adventures of a Goose with no Feathers expected from Chinese Cinderella III economic historians who love numbers and data analysis

Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read

Review One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Summary × PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Roger L. Ransom Ry classic includes a new introduction by the authors an extensive bibliography of works in Southern history published since the appearance of the first edition and revised findings based on newly available data and statistical techniues. A Synopsis Ransom and Sutch concentrate on the cotton South South Carolina Georgia Alabama Mississippi and Louisiana This book has two foci 1 It examines the economic institutions that replaced slavery and the conditions under which ex slaves were allowed to enter the economic life of the United States for the first time as free agentsxi 2 It asks the uestion why the South did not share eually in the general American economic expansion from the Civil War to WWI The thesis is that the lack of progress in the postemanciaption era was the conseuence of flawed economic institutions tenant farming credit system erected in the wake of Confederate defeat 2 Thus the main goal of the book is to identify these flaws and assess the price Southerners and the slow progress of blacks paid as a conseuenceB One kind of freedom1 In 1865 emancipation permitted blacks one kind of freedom They advanced their material income and increased their independence But this freedom was incomplete It was incomplete in the 1860s and remains incomplete todayC What did freedom mean1 Freedom meant the destruction of a 250 year old economic system in the South A new society and economy would have to be reconstructed and rebuilt on a new design Because these new institutions were fashioned in haste and in a context of racial animosity they emerged deeply flawed The blacks gained political freedom yet were disenfranchised the blacks gained social freedom but were outcast from white society by discrimination the blacks gained economic freedom but became the poorest of the southernersD What was the legacy of slavery1 Did slavery through paternalism provide the slave with the skills necessary to exist in freedom and in a free economy No Slavery was a poor preparation for freedom The slave was never exposed to negotiating a contract borrowing on credit determining a crop mix marketing a cotton crop or reading an agricultural journal Slaves were mostly illiterate without the benefit of a formal education The only skills that they possessed was that of a field hand It is difficult to imagine an apprenticeship less valuable E The myth of the prostrate South1 The Civil War did devastate the South Human life work animals destruction of homes barns bridges railroads This all crippled the economy Can the economic backwardness of the South during the 50 years after the war be attributable to the wartime devastation Many countries experience incredible economic resurgence after a devastating war example Japan The South did retain the skills and knowledge embodied in the population and the land itself remained relatively unharmed Thus the conclusion is that the destructive impact of the Civil War on Southern agriculture has been distorted and exaggerated The main reason for the decline in per capita output the decline in land value the reduction of acreage of planted crops are all a conseuence of a decline in labor due to emancipation There were less people working black women stayed at home fewer hours of the dayF The demise of the plantation and the rise of tenant farming1 So if the Freedmen were without land or assets and the plantation owners were without workers some agreement had to be reached Blacks were able to prevent the creation of a labor system that would have replaced one method of exploitation with another At the same time the landowners retained ownership of the land and thus prevented a collapse of the social and political hegemony that they controlled The new economic institution was tenant farming the reorganization of ante bellum plantations into smaller tenancies each operated by a single family By 1880 the plantation system ceased to exist blacks remained landless and economically subservientG Agricultural reconstruction1 In an agricultural society the possession of land is the key to affluence the source of economic security and the basis of an estate to be passed on to one s children But the freedmen s desire for the land was not enough The ex slave faced 3 major obstacles 1 He inherited nothing from slavery with which to purchase land 2 The disorganized state of the credit market made it difficult for him to borrow the necessary capital 3 Whites were at best hesitant and in many cases openly hostile to the idea of black land ownership2 The sharecropping agreement The crops were almost always split 50 50 The main bargaining point was the amount of land given to each family The landowners wanted to give a small share to each family so that they would try to maximize the lands productivity A small plot would yield high output per acre but low yields per man The landlord provided land housing fuel working stock feed for the stock farming implements and seed The freedman and his family provided the labor and fed and clothed themselves3 The sharecropping system was not efficient The landowners did not provide money to allow the sharecroppers to install improvements The result was a lack of agricultural progressH Financial reconstruction1 The financial and merchandising network that was developed to accommodate the ante bellum cotton trade had to be completely rebuilt after the Civil War With the institutional change replacing the slave plantation with family operated farms it was inevitable that new financial institutions would have to be developed Unlike the reorganization of agriculture the organization of new financial and marketing institutions received little contemporary notice But this financial reconstruction was to have far ranging effects than the agricultural or political reconstruction s2 The rural franchising merchant takes the place of the cotton factor The cotton factor in the ante bellum era was the link between the planter and the cotton manufacturers in New England and England The sophisticated planter businessman had close ties with the factor and this facilitated efficiency The rise of tenant farming by inexperienced and illiterate farmers multiplied the number of farming units The distant cotton factor could not deal with the individual units o the task fell to the local rural furnishing merchant The RFM owned the local store Thus some of the economic efficiencies of the ante bellum system could thus be preserved despite the structural transformationI The emergence of the rural furnishing merchants territorial monopoly1 Within several years after the Civil War the RFM had come to dominate the territory in which he operated His influence through his store extended beyond the economic life of his territory to all aspects of rural culture He was the hub of the local universe He created the market place the banking and credit source the recreational center public forum and news exchange The economic success of these rural stores seemed to be positive for the Southern farmers The advantages of having a local supplier seemed to be numerous But as the merchant began to consolidate his power he came to be seen in a different light The storekeeper began to be seen as the oppressor who exploited and coerced his customers and displaced the landowner as the leader of the community The source of the RFM s power was his new system of providing short term agricultural credit He gained a territorial monopoly of the area which allowed him to control the social political and economic affairs that interested him2 The source of the monopoly power was credit There were other stores in which food and supplies could be bought But the tenant farmers had no money when they started out So the merchant extended the new farmer credit if the farmer would do all of his business the merchants store The dominating constraint that limited the willingness of outsiders to offer credit in rural areas was the great amount of expense reuired to watch over their investment This secured the RFMJ The trap of debt peonage1 The monopoly power used by the RFM was used not only exploit southern farmers but to control southern agriculture The merchant forced the farmer into excessive production of cotton by refusing credit to those who sought to diversify production There was at stake here than the farmer s right to cultivate as he saw fit Critics feared that the RFM s insistence upon only cotton would doom the South to economic backwardnessK The roots of southern poverty1 The Civil War destroyed the cotton factor plantation and slavery In its place came the RFM the tenant farm and the sharecropper This transformation coincided with the virtual cessation of economic growth in the South This situation lasted for 4 decades until 1892 when another great shock hit the south the boll weevil In 1894 12 of the crops were lost An insect had finally accomplished what agriculturists had been urging in the New South for years southern farmers reduced their concentration upon cotton and shifted to other crops Thus this insect ended the era the Civil War had produced


5 thoughts on “Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation]

  1. says: Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation] Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read

    Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation] This is an extended review of this classic economic history of the SouthWhen Ransom and Sutch published the first edition of One Kin

  2. says: Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation]

    Review One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation] I'm not a fan of economic history but this book did actually interest me By looking at the era of post emancipation and its failures Ransom and Sutch see its failures through the issues of race relations and most of all the economic institutions The greedy rural merchants who kept sharecroppers and tenant farmers in debt allied with landowners they become the focal point of much of the book Great read for anyon

  3. says: Review One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation]

    Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation] Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read A Synopsis Ransom and Sutch concentrate on the cotton South South Carolina Georgia Alabama Mississippi and Louisiana This book has two foci 1 It

  4. says: Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation] Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read

    Review One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation] Eu gostei bastante desse livro e apesar de ter lido sobre a economia do sul dos EUA antes fiuei bastante surpreso com alguns dados apresentados aui Eu sabia por exemplo ue na segunda metade do século XIX houve um

  5. says: Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation]

    Pdf/E–book [One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation] Summary × PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ✓ Roger L. Ransom Roger L. Ransom ✓ 2 Free read Rightly considered a classic work of economic history

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  • Paperback
  • 488
  • One Kind of Freedom The Economic Conseuences of Emancipation
  • Roger L. Ransom
  • English
  • 09 March 2020
  • 9780521795500